NJCBR Online http://njcbr.info/index.php/njcbr <p>The Nigerian Journal of Clinical and Biomedical Research is a multidisciplinary journal of international standard that publishes original research, comprehensive review articles , shorts, and commentaries on clinical and biomedical issues. It provides a forum for researchers to share findings and to disseminate useful and relevant information globally</p> Nigerian Institute of Medical Researh en-US NJCBR Online 1596-0730 Family Planning In The Context Of HIV Infection http://njcbr.info/index.php/njcbr/article/view/20 <p>The World Health organisation identified family planning as a cost effective means of preventing unintended pregnancies in HIV infected women and also a means of preventing mother to child transmission of HIV. Hence the adoption of family planning as one of the four pillars of the comprehensive approach to the prevention mother to child transmission of HIV. In order to actualize this plan, the global health community embarked on creating stronger linkages between family planning and HIV policies, programs, and services. These linkages are essential to meet the needs of women and their families and to achieve international development goals, such as the millennium development goals (MDG 4,5 and 6), an AIDS-free generation and greater access to reproductive health services. Thus, the birth of integrating family planning to HIV prevention, treatment and care programs. This strategy was aimed at improving access and uptake of family planning services by HIV infected women, bearing in mind its contributions to maternal and child health. However, rates of unintended pregnancies remain alarmingly high in women with HIV, and family planning interventions have been underutilized in HIV Prevention, care, and treatment programs. This is not surprising in a country like Nigeria whose current overall prevalence rate of family planning use is 15% (1). This reflects a low utilization rate of family planning despite its immense benefits.</p> Agatha E. Wapmuk T A Gbajabiamila A G Ohihoin O C Ezechi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-25 2018-05-25 7 9 6 22 Incidence And Pattern Of Tuberculosis In HIV Infected Adult In Lagos Nigeria http://njcbr.info/index.php/njcbr/article/view/22 <p>A cross sectional study to determine the incidence and pattern of TB infection among newly registered HIV patients at HIV treatment centre in Lagos. . Consecutive patients registering for care during the 3 month study period were screened for TB infection using symptoms, sputum<br>smear for acid and alcohol fast bacilli and chest X-ray after informed consent. Study related information was collected on case record form designed for the study. Data analysis was with SPPS for windows version 20.0 One hundred and sixty out of 621 patients enrolled during the study were diagnosed to have TB infection</p> Dan I Onwujekwe O C Ezechi P M Ezeobi T A Gbajabiamila ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-25 2018-05-25 7 9 23 28 Statistical Issues II: Chi-Square Test Statistics http://njcbr.info/index.php/njcbr/article/view/23 <p>The Chi-Square statistics is the widely used non-parametric statistical test used for testing relationships between categorical variables. It describes the magnitude of discrepancy between the observed data and the data expected to be obtained with a specific hypothesis. The Chi-Square test is described with a case study, computed and interpreted using SPSS software for a 2 by 2 table. And in interpreting the chi-square statistic, the higher the chisquare value, the greater the likelihood that there is a statistically significant difference between the two groups we are comparing. As with any statistic, there are requirements for its appropriate use, which are called "assumptions” of the statistics. Additionally the X<sup>2</sup> is a significance test, and should always be coupled with an appropriate test of strength.1</p> Adesola Zaidat Musa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-25 2018-05-25 7 9 29 35